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TimelinE

1933
January 30 President von Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler Reich Chancellor
February 27 The Reichstag in Berlin is set on fire
March 4 Franklin D. Roosevelt is inaugurated as President of the United States
March 20 The first concentration camp is opened at Dachau near Munich
April 1 Nazi boycott of Jewish-owned businesses
July 20 Nazi Germany and the Vatican sign a concordat guaranteeing the rights of the Catholic Church in Germany
August 25 German officials and Zionist representatives sign the “Haavra (Transfer) Agreement” Boycott of Germany by Jewish groups in the United States Anti-Nazi rally in New York City
December 5 Otto and Edith Frank move their family to Amsterdam
1934
June 30

“Night of the Long Knives.” Hitler has his Nazi rivals murdered

August 2 Hindenburg dies
1935
March 1 Germany occupies the Saar
May 27 NIRA declared unconstitutional
August 14

Social Security Act passed

September 15

The Nuremberg Racial Laws are announced at a Nazi Party rally in Nuremberg

December Otto and Margot Frank visit Switzerland
1936
March 7

Hitler repudiates the Versailles and Locarno Treaties as German troops occupy the Rhineland

April 19 Outbreak of Arab Revolt in Palestine (1936-1939)
May 5

Fall of Ethiopia to Italy

July 16 The Spanish Civil War begins. It continues until 1939
October 25 Germany and Italy establish the Rome-Berlin Axis
November 7

FDR re-elected president for second term

November 25

Germany and Japan sign the Anti-Comintern Pact, directed at the Soviet Union

1937
February FDR’s Supreme Court - packing plan
July 7 Japanese forces invade northern China
July 16 Buchenwald concentration camp opens
August Hundreds of attacks on Jews in Poland
December 28

Antisemitic government installed in Romania

1938
March 12

The German army marches into Austria and the formal union (Anschluss) of Austria with Germany takes place

April

FDR forms the President’s Advisory Committee onPolitical Refugees (PACPR)

April 26

The “Decree Regarding Registration of Jewish Property” requires all Jews in Germany to register their assets

May 16

First Jews begin forced labor in Mauthausen concentration camp

July 6-15 Évian Conference on Refugees
August FDR begins trying to ransom German Jewry
September 29-30

Germany, Great Britain, France, and Italy sign the Munich Agreement approving Germany’s annexation of the Sudetenland

November

FDR’s attempted “purge” of conservative Democrats

November 7 Herschel Grynszpan assassinates Ernst vom Rath
November 9-10

The Crystal Night (Kristallnacht) pogrom takes place throughout Germany and Austria

December

Establishment of Mossad for Aliyah B (illegal immigration to Palestine)

1939
January Debate over the Wagner-Rogers immigration bill
January 17

Felix Frankfurter confirmed by a unanimous Senate vote to the United States Supreme Court

January 30

Hitler speaks to the Reichstag, threatening the annihilation of the Jews in Europe in the event of a war

March 15 German forces occupy Prague, Bohemia and Moravia
March 28

Franco marches into Madrid. Fascists are victorious in Spanish Civil War

March 31

Great Britain and France guarantee the sovereignty of Poland.

April 15

FDR’s telegram to Hitler and Mussolini asking for assurances of non-aggression

May 15

Establishment of Ravensbrück concentration camp for women

May 17

The British White Paper on Palestine establishes a limit on Jewish immigration

May and June

Over nine hundred Jews attempt to emigrate from Germany on board the steamship SS St. Louis in May, but are forced to return to Europe in June

July 20

The Coordinating Foundation is established

August 23 The Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact is signed in Moscow
September

FDR continues his efforts to ransom German Jewry by supporting the Rublee Plan and insisting on the Coordinating Foundation

September 1

Germany invades Poland. The beginning of World War II in Europe

September 3 Great Britain and France declare war on Germany
September 12 Bombing of Warsaw by Luftwaffe
September 17

Soviet forces enter eastern Poland

September 21

Germany orders the expulsion of Poles, Jews, and Gypsies from the Polish territories to be incorporated into the Reich

September 27

Warsaw surrenders

October 1

German authorities begin the deportation of Jews

October 8 First Jewish ghetto established
1940
January 4

The first gassing of disabled patients by the Nazis

February 8 Lodz ghetto established
April 7 Germany invades Denmark and Norway
April 27

Himmler orders the establishment of a concentration camp at Auschwitz (Oswiecim, Poland)

May 10

Germany launches its offensive against the Low Countries and France.

Rotterdam bombed by Germans

Neville Chamberlain resigns as British prime minister and is replaced by Winston Churchill

Germans On Motorcycles
May 15 The Netherlands surrender to the Germans
May 16

FDR tells Congress “These are ominous days...we have seen the treacherous use of the ‘fifth column’”

May 17

Germany invades France

May 24-28

British cabinet wrestles with the decision to continue the war against Germany

June 10 Roosevelt’s speech at the University of Virginia warning Mussolini
June 14

German troops enter Paris

The first prisoners, more than seven hundred Poles, arrive at Auschwitz

June 22 France Surrenders
August 13

The German bombing campaign against England, the Battle of Britain (“the Blitz”) begins

August 15 Madagascar Plan
September 2

United States agrees to provide Great Britain with fifty destroyers in return for bases

September SS Quanza incident in Norfolk, Virginia
September 27

Tripartite (Axis) Pact between Germany, Italy and Japan

October 12

Warsaw ghetto established

November 7

FDR reelected president for a third term; Wendell Willkie loses

November 15

Warsaw ghetto sealed

December 29

FDR’s “Arsenal of Democracy” speech

1941
January 6

FDR’s “Four Freedoms”

Charlie Chaplain’s “The Great Dictator”

March 11 The Lend-Lease Act is signed by President Roosevelt
May

Spy Tyler Kent is arrested in London

May 20

The Germans stop all Jewish emigration from Belgium and France

May 27

FDR announces “unlimited national emergency”

Rommel advances in North Africa

June 22

“Operation Barbarossa,” the German invasion of the Soviet Union, begins

June 23

SS Einsatzgruppen and Ordnungspolizei units begin exterminating Jews and Gypsies in the Soviet Union

June 27

Hungary joins the Axis and enters the war

June 29 State Department tightens visa procedure
July

Franks travel to visit relatives

August 1

Franks travel to visit relatives

August 9-14

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt meet aboard warship and sign the Atlantic Charter

August 23

Himmler issues a directive ordering a halt to all Jewish emigration

September 3 About nine hundred people, mostly Russian prisoners of war, are gassed at Auschwitz. Vilna ghetto established
September 8 Siege of Leningrad begins
September 19 Fall of Kiev
September 29-30

SS Einsatzkommando murders more than thirty-three thousand Kiev Jews at Babi Yar

October

Otto Frank’s business in Amsterdam is “Aryanized.”He transfers business to Jan Gies

October 12 The German army reaches the outskirts of Moscow. Warsaw ghetto established
October 15-23

All Jewish emigration from Germany is prohibited. Mass deportations of German Jews begins

November 1

Construction of the Belzec extermination camp begins

November 24

Theresienstadt “model camp” established

November 30 –December 1

First transports arrive at Majdanek
December 7 Japan bombs the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
December 8 Japan attacks the Philippines
December 7-8

The SS opens the first extermination camp at Chelmno near Lodz in western Poland. First use of mobile gas vans

Roosevelt
December 10

Prince of Wales and Repulse sunk

December 11 Germany and Italy declare war on the United States
December 22

Churchill and FDR meet in Washington

December 25 British troops in Hong Kong surrender to the Japanese
1942
December 8 Breckinridge Long becomes special assistant secretary of state in charge of emergency war matters
January

Rationing begins in the United States

January 2

Manilla, capital of the Philippines, surrenders to the Japanese

Executive order 9066, signed by President Roosevelt, orders all Japanese Americans living on the West Coast of the United States into internment camps

January 13

The St. James Palace Declaration on war crimes

January 20 The Wannsee Conference in Berlin to coordinate the Final Solution
February 15

Singapore surrenders

February 23 The Struma sinks off the Turkish coast
March 1 Construction begins on the Sobibor extermination camp
March 19-20

The Belzec extermination camp begins killing Jews deported from Lvov

March 20 Mass gassings of Jews from Upper Silesia begin at Auschwitz-Birkenau
March 27 The first Jews are deported from France to Auschwitz
April

The Franks are required to wear yellow star. Anne Frank buys her diary

April 9 American forces surrender to the Japanese at Bataan. Bataan Death March begins
May 6-11 Biltmore (Zionist) Conference in New York City demands establishment of Jewish commonwealth
May 7 Opening of Sobibor extermination camp
May 7 Battle of the Coral Sea
May 29

Jews in occupied France are required to wear the yellow badge

June 2 Polish Bund and BBC report seven hundred thousand Jews killed in Poland (New York Times carries report on July 2)
June 4-7

The U.S. Navy defeats the Japanese fleet at the Battle of Midway

June 10 German forces murder all the men and some women in the village of Lidice, Czechoslovakia
June 21

Surrender of British at Tobruk

July 5 Anne Frank and her family move into a secret annex constructed in the top stories of her father’s office building in Amsterdam
July 15 The deportation of Jews from Holland to Auschwitz begins

The Treblinka death camp begins receiving Jews from Warsaw. It is the last of the three camps, along with Belzec and Sobibor, created to exterminate Polish Jews

July 21

Mass demonstration at Madison Square Garden and in New York City sponsored by AJ Congress and B’nai B’rith against Nazi massacres of Polish Jews

July 23

The mass murder of Jews at Treblinka begins

August 8

Riegner’s telegram to Rabbi Wise describing his belief in Final Solution

August 19

The Battle of Stalingrad begins

Battle for Guadalcanal
August 21

FDR warns Germans that war criminals would face “fearful retribution”

September 13 Germany begins its attack on the Soviet city of Stalingrad
September - October

Efforts by FDR and State Department to save five thousand Jewish children in France

October 7 FDR warns Germans again and United States announces creation of United Nations Commission for the Investigation of War Crimes to prosecute the guilty
October 23 The battle of El Alamein in Egypt begins
October 27

Japanese withdraw at Guadalcanal

November 2 British victory at El Alamein
November 7-8

Operation Torch, the invasion of North Africa, begins as Allied troops land in Morocco and Algeria

November 11 Germans occupy Vichy France
November 24

Welles confirms massacre of Jews to Wise; Wise makes facts public that two million Jews were dead. Actually, approximately three and a half million Jews were dead

December 2

Day of mourning in major American cities for the Jews of Europe

December 8 Rabbi Wise and four other Jewish leaders meet with FDR
December 17

United Nations Declaration on Jewish Massacres issued by FDR, Churchill, Stalin and Allied governments-in-exile

1943
January

German rabbi Leo Baeck is arrested and sent to the Theresienstadt concentration camp in Czechoslovakia, where he remained until after the camp is liberated by the Soviets at the end of World War II

January 14-24

Roosevelt and Churchill meet at Casablanca. FDR’s conference with Noguès

February 2 The German Sixth Army at Stalingrad surrenders to Soviet forces; Battle of the Atlantic is raging
March 9

“We Will Never Die” rally at Madison Square Garden

April 13

The discovery of mass graves at Katyn containing the bodies of thousands of Polish officers massacred by the Soviet Union

April 19 Bermuda Conference on Refugees convenes
April 19-May 26 Warsaw Jewish ghetto uprising
April 30 The Bergen-Belsen concentration camp is opened
May 7

Tunis falls to the Allies

May 12

Trident Conference in Washington, FDR meets with Churchill

June 1 Liquidation of Lvov ghetto begins
June 23 Peenemünde rocket site discovered by Allies
June 28 All five crematoriums completed at Auschwitz-Birkenau
July 4-22 The Battle of Kursk
July 9 Allies invade Sicily
July 22

Rabbi Wise meets with FDR on proposals concerning Romanian and French Jews

July 25 Mussolini is dismissed as head of government in Italy and arrested
July 28 FDR meets with Jan Karski
August

Riegner and Lichtheim report four million Jews are dead

August 1 USAAF raids on Ploesti oil fields
August 17 Peenemünde bombed
September 3 The Allies land in southern Italy.
September 9 The German army occupies parts of Italy.
September 23 Vilna ghetto liquidated
October 1 Rescue of Danish Jews
October 6 March of four hundred Orthodox rabbis in Washington
October 20 United Nations War Crimes Commission established
November 3

Nazi authorities launch Operation Harvest Festival. By the end of November the three extermination camps used in Operation Reinhard - Sobibor, Treblinka, and Belzec - are closed.

November 28-

December 1
Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin meet in Teheran
1944
January 16 Morganthau and Treasury staff meet with FDR
January 22

President Roosevelt creates the War Refugee Board.

Allies land at Anzio

February 1 The Irgun declares war on the British in Palestine
February Primo Levi is sent to Auschwitz
March 6

First large-scale daylight bombing of Berlin by USAAF

March 19

German forces occupy Hungary; Horthy arrested

March 24

FDR condemns the massacre of the Jews as “one of the blackest crimes of all history” and promises swift punishment of the Nazis

April 5

Ploesti bombed by USAAF based at Foggia, Italy

April 25 “Blood for Goods” deal offered by Eichmann to Joel Brand
April 27

German authorities begin the deportation of Jews from Hungary to Auschwitz

May 19

Joel Brand arrives in Istanbul

June 4

United States troops enter Rome

June 6 D-Day. The Western Allies land in Normandy in France
June 8 FDR approves Oswego shelter
June 11

Jewish Agency Executive votes 11 to 1 not to request bombing of Auschwitz

June 13 First V-1 missiles hit England
June 18 Rosenheim requests bombing of Auschwitz
June 22

Operation Bagration along an eight-hundred-mile front in White Russia (now Belarus). The Soviets inflict immense losses on the Germany army and drive them back almost four hundred miles

Kubowitzki writes Pehle opposing bombing of Auschwitz

July 9

Horthy orders a halt to the deportation of Jews from Hungary to Auschwitz; four hundred, thirty-seven thousand, four hundred, two Hungarian Jews killed at Auschwitz; Raoul Wallenberg arrives in Budapest

July 20

A small group of German army officers, eager to end the war, unsuccessfully attempts to assassinate Adolf Hitler

July 25 Soviet forces liberate Majdanek
August 1 Polish uprising against the Germans in Warsaw
August 4

After living undetected for twenty-five months, Anne Frank and her family, and the four others hiding in the secret annex are reported to the Nazis. The annex dwellers are all sent to the Auschwitz concentration camp

August 15 American forces land in southern France
August 24

Paris is liberated

August 25 Antonescu is overthrown; Romania declares war on Germany
September 8 First V-2 missiles hit London
September 17 Operation “Market Garden”
October 2 German troops crush Warsaw Polish uprising
October

Industrialist Oskar Schindler is granted permission by the Nazis to establish a munitions factory in Czechoslovakia

United States General Douglas MacArthur returns to liberate the Philippines from Japanese control

October 9

Moscow Conference

October 15 Horthy announces a truce with the Allies. The Horthy government is overthrown by the Fascist Arrow Cross Party with German support
October 23-26 The largest naval battle in history, the Battle of Leyte Gulf, in the Philippines, ends in almost total destruction of the Japanese fleet.
November 2 The gassings at Auschwitz are stopped
November 5 Eichmann deports Jews from Budapest on foot in death marches to Austria
November 7

FDR is reelected president for a fourth term. Lord Moyne is assassinated by the Stern Gang

November 25 Destruction of the crematoriums at Auschwitz by Germans begins
December 16 Battle of the Bulge, a major counteroffensive by the Germans against the Allies
1945
January 12

Soviets launch an offensive along the entire Polish front, entering Warsaw on January 17 and Lodz two days later. By February 1, they are within one hundred miles of the German capital of Berlin

January 17 Russian troops liberate Warsaw
January 18 Sixty thousand Auschwitz prisoners are sent on death marches to camps in the West
January 27 Soviets liberate Auschwitz
February 4-11

Allied leaders Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin meet in Yalta in the Soviet Union to discuss strategies for ending the war and to plan future forms of government for Germany and other parts of Europe

February 13 Allied bombing of Dresden
“As American troops arrived, a homemade American flag was raised by the prisoners of Dachau prison camp. As it waved in the breeze, it seemed to reflect the joy of inmates who realize freedom for the first time in many years.
February 14

FDR meets with Ibn Saud

February 19 American marines land on Iwo Jima
March 7 American forces cross the Rhine at Remagen
April 1

American troops land on Okinawa, beginning the largest land battle of the Pacific War; Japanese forces there are defeated by June

April 11

United States General George S. Patton and his Third Army liberate the Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany. American reporter Edward R. Murrow broadcasts his impressions of Buchenwald a few days later

April 12 President Roosevelt dies of a cerebral hemorrhage in Warm Springs, Georgia
April 22 Soviet troops enter Berlin
April 25 The United Nations meets in San Francisco
April 28

Italian partisans execute Benito Mussolini. Final gassing at Mauthausen

April 29

Dachau liberated by United States Third Army, saving thirty thousand inmates

April 30 Hitler commits suicide
May 2 German forces in Berlin and Italy surrender
May 3 German authorities turn over Theresienstadt to the Red Cross
May 7 Unconditional surrender of Germany to Eisenhower
May 8 The war in Europe officially ends
August 6 Bombing of Hiroshima
August 9 Bombing of Nagasaki
August 15

Japan surrenders

November Nuremberg trials
 
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